A total knee replacement is an intricate procedure that demands an orthopedic surgeon to make accurate well-defined measurements and skilfully extract the infected parts of your bone, to shape the residual surviving bone to support the knee implant. Your surgeon places the artificial knee inside your leg, slowly and carefully, segment by segment, to create a very genuine artificial joint all throughout the procedure.
Following is a step-by-step guide of your Total knee replacement procedure once you enter the operation theatre:
STEP 1: Incision of the Knee
The vital signs of the patient are checked for normal blood pressure, cardiac rates, body temperature and level of oxygenation for the operation to proceed. Your doctor will cut through the knees to get access to the patella, the so-called kneecap. Usually, the incision takes about 8 to 10 centimeters in a traditional knee replacement and usually lasts about 4-6 inches during minimum invasive total knee replacement surgery. In such a case, you need to talk to your doctor about the most desirable procedure required in your case.
STEP 2: Patella Rotation (Knee-cap)
Kneecap is the first component of the knee which is undergoing surgery. It is also termed as the patella. Your surgeon rotates kneecap (patella) outside the knee area once your knee is open so that they can view the area necessitated for the procedure.
STEP 3: Femur (Thighbone) Preparation
Your surgeon will resurface your thighbone which is known as femur in medical terminology. Once your knee joint is open and visible, your surgeon will carefully and adequately examine your bones to make fine incisions by using the high-quality medical instrument. Your femur top is then trimmed and rearranged in order to fit the first part of the artificial knee which is the thighbone femoral element. The cartilage from the end of your femur is perfectly cut.
STEP 4: Femoral (Thighbone) Component Implantation
The doctor fixes the metal femoral ingredient to the bottom of your femur and utilizes bone cement to dress it.
STEP 5: Tibia (Shinbone) Preparation
The next bone your doctor will resurface is your tibia, most popularly known as the shinbone. Your surgeon will nevertheless remove the damaged bone and cartilage from the top of your shinbone to make it suitable to insert and place a metal or plastic tibial components.
STEP 6: Tibial (Shinbone) Component Implantation
On the top of the tibia is fixed the metal plate which holds the polyethylene separator and is cemented. The plastic separator is then mounted on the tibial component metal tray. If the rest of the artificial knee is sound, it can be replaced when this component wears out.
STEP 7: Adjustment of the Patella (Knee-cap)
Your surgeon may have to flatten the patella and fit it with an extra plastic element before returning the patella to its usual place so that it is incorrect compliance with the remainder of your implant. If necessary, the plastic part is cemented to the base bone.
STEP 8: Incision (Cut) Closure – Finalizing the Process
Your surgeon will slightly flex and bend your knee to check whether or not the implant is working properly and to ensure about proper alignment, size, and placement. The surgeon will finish the knee operation with a stitch or staple, then bandage the incision and prepare for your revival. You may leave the operating room with your leg in an ongoing passive movement (CPM) machine that bends gently and bends your new knee while you lay down.
The designs of implants differ considerably to satisfy each patient’s requirements. The purpose of knee replacement surgery is to restore ordinary knee joint function.