What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a condition in which the blood    concentration of sugar, that is glucose, is generally on the higher side. Our body releases a hormone named insulin, which is created by the pancreatic gland. Insulin breaks down the sugar content present in our foods. If an adequate amount of insulin is not being able to produce or there is a reduction in its formation, it triggers diabetes. If such a condition is overlooked, it can be a cause to heart issues, blindness, renal failure and many other problems which can be very life-threatening.


Are there any types of Diabetes?

There are two types of diabetes, namely, Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes. In Type 1 Diabetes, the body’s immune system becomes weak and destructs the pancreatic insulin-producing cells which in turn stops producing insulin. This type is more prevalent in the case of kids or youngsters. In Type 2 Diabetes, either the pancreas create insufficient amounts of insulin, or the body can not accurately use existing insulin. In adults, type 2 diabetes is prevalent and more well-known in overweight and obese people.

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What are the tests required to diagnose Diabetes?

There are various tests which can accurately let you know about your blood sugar levels. Almost all the tests assess the amount of sugar in your blood.

  • OGTT (oral glucose tolerance check), which checks blood sugar levels in a rapid state, and after 2 hours of glucose drinking. In case the 2-hour value is approximately 200 mg / dL or more, the presence of diabetes is indicated.
  • Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) measures the level of control over blood sugar over the last 3 months. The existence of diabetes shows that HBA1C is either 6.5% or more.
  • FGP (fasting plasma glucose) is usually done first thing in the morning after 8-10 hours of fasting. If the FGP value is equal to or more than 126 mg / dL, there are signs of having diabetes.
  • RPG ( (random plasma glucose) is a blood sugar test which can be done at any time of the day. If indicates signs of diabetes, if you have RPG equal to or more than 200 mg / dL.

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Who is at risk for Diabetes?

With age, particularly after age 40, you increase the risk of Type 2 diabetes. This may result in a lower workout, loss of muscle weight and increase in weight as age advances. If someone in your family has Type 2 diabetes, there is a slight possibility you might have it too. Basically, this type of diabetes is very common for adults who eat fatty foods, do not exercise, and take a lot of stress. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes is greater for females who have developed diabetes during pregnancy.

Why is one at risk of acquiring Diabetes when overweight or obese?

Overweight people are more prone to type 2 diabetes than people of normal weight. Losing weight, doing regular workouts and improving physical activity overcomes the risk of diabetes of this type. The weight of the body has many impacts on your health. Our body can prevent the production and use of insulin accurately due to overweight.

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What are the frequent signs and symptoms of Diabetes?

  • One of the key things to keep in mind is that diabetes does not always create symptoms until the disease is relatively high. One may suspect diabetes if one has a few of the following symptoms:
  • Loss of weight despite healthy eating
  • Overly thirsty and tend to drink extreme amounts of water
  • The body finds it difficult to battle infections with high blood sugar levels
  • Tingling  in the feet and hands
  • Pass urine more often than previously
  • Tired rapidly for no obvious reason
  • Children with diabetes complain about fatigue, weakness and irritable behavior sometimes


Why are periodic inspections essential for Diabetes?

The symptoms of diabetes may be mild at first, but if neglected, can take the worst form and cause a lot of life-threatening complications. The only way to find out is under the supervision of a health-care provider. One or several blood tests can be performed by a healthcare provider to find out about diabetes. People at high risk from the age of 35 should be tested for diabetes regularly.

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What are the kinds of treatment for Diabetes?

The purpose of therapy is to preserve blood sugar levels as close as possible to normal. As medications are essential for the control of blood sugar, food type, and physical activity levels are essential as well. Diabetes may be treated with different medications. Injectable drugs may also be used in addition to taking medications by mouth. Type 2 diabetes is commonly treated with oral medicines, although oral medicine may not improve the blood sugar levels properly, insulin injections may be prescribed. The patient must be careful in his diet, be physically active, take oral drugs and/or insulin, and be well educated about the disease in order for therapy to succeed.


Does the diet vary for Diabetic people in comparison to Non-Diabetic people?

Diabetic people have the same diet as people who do not have diabetes. Make sure your diet is healthy and keep your blood sugar levels in healthy eating habits. You can still enjoy a broad range of favorite food with adequate planning.

Can Diabetes cause severe problems?

Yes, it can give rise to difficult medical emergencies that threaten life. This can occur if your sugar in the blood is too high or too low. The best possible treatment in a hospital is to provide diabetic minor ailments.


How do you check and manage Diabetes?

  • Get a good body weight
  • Be active physically
  • Inculcate weight control activity almost every day for 30 minutes
  • Eat healthy diets of 3 to 5 servings of fruit & vegetables
  • Decrease the intake of sugar, salt and saturated fat each day
  • Avoid alcohol and smoking
  • Undergo stress management
  • Get regular check-ups on a timely basis
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What do you mean by the pathophysiology of Diabetes?

Diabetes occurs when there is an imbalance between the demand for insulin and the manufacturing of insulin. The peripheral insulin resilience, impaired regulation in hepatic glucose production and reduction in β-cell function is described as type 2 diabetes mellitus pathophysiology which eventually points to β-cell failure.


What do you mean by the epidemiology of Diabetes?

A comparatively latest evolution is the epidemiology of diabetes. Basically, diabetes was a rare disease once but it came into limelight during the 20th century. There are 4 elements to the epidemiology of diabetes, namely,

  • Classification & definition of diabetes
  • Manifestations related to this problem (time, place, person, and the history of this disease)
  • Analyzing the risk factors in the development of the disease & its implications
  • Design and evaluate clinical treatment measures of diabetes with a lot of trials & continuous experimentation